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Leadership Styles

Tannenbaum & Schmidt (1958) Seven Leadership Styles of Decision Making
tell, sell, consult, share
Andes & Goeres The ten commandments of Leadership g961120
Tayeb (1996) Four leadership and management styles g970515c
Morgan (1986) Six leadership and management styles g960329b

Transformational Leadership and Contingency


Seven Leadership Styles of Decision Making

The model is based on that of Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958)
as quoted in Bennet N et al (1992) Managing Change in Education.

The model is based on leadership styles in schools but the principles are generally applicable.

Head Centred Leadership

Teacher centred leadership

Use of authority by the Head

Area of freedom for teachers

Head makes decision and announces it

Head "sells" the decision

Head presents ideas and invites questions

Head presents tentative decision subject to change

Head presents problem, gets suggestions, makes decision

Head defines limits, asks group to make decision

Head permits teachers to function within limits defined by herself













The Ten Commandments of Leadership

Source: John Andes & Ernest Goeres in Management Solutions

Thou Cannot ...

So ...

accomplish the goals of the organization You must depend on those with whom you work
do all the process activities You must delegate authority and responsibility
succeed without environmental support You must seek feedback from the environment and you must represent your organization to the environment
assume that thou art the only intelligent being in the organization You must involve other organisational members in the organisational functions
survive without feedback to members Evaluation and discussion are critical
survive without feedback from members You must create a climate of trust and show a willingness to listen
satisfy all the people all the time But you should upset the right people for the right reasons
keep thy position forever You must leave it for the right cause at the right time
expect everything to go right all of the time You must not take the events personally or allow others to take them personally
ignore your personal and professional needs You must maintain your integrity and self in all situations


Four Leadership and Management Styles

Based on Tayeb M H (1996) The management of a multicultural workforce; John Wiley

Leadership is the process of influencing group activities towards the achievement of goals. Leaders influence and change the way people think about what is desirable, possible and necessary.

Not all managers in organisations are leaders, but they do share with the leaders the desire to achieve the goals of organisations. It is perhaps useful to recognise four basic types of manager.

The Autocrat

tells people what to do

The autocrat has little confidence in his subordinates and distrusts them. He makes most of the decisions and passes them down the line. He makes threats where necessary to ensure that his orders are obeyed.

The benevolent autocrat

sells his ideas to others

The benevolent autocrat sees himself as a superior father figure who makes all the important decisions and then convinces his subordinates to go along with them. He may allow some decisions to be made by some subordinates within a framework set by himself. Rewards as well as punishments may be used to 'motivate' people.

The consultative democrat

consults with others before making his decisions

The consultative democrat has confidence and trust in most people and communicates and colnsults widely with his employees. Before making decisions he will seek the views of his coordinates, but he or she will have the final say.

The participatory democrat

shares the decision making process with others

The participatory democrat has complete confidence and trust in his colleagues. When a mojor problem arises or decision has to be made, all the relevant actors are called together to discuss the issues and the mojority view is taken as the final decision.

Note that in management theory there is no agreement about what is the ultimate BEST style. Everything depends on circumstances.

bulletWhat are the attitudes of the general culture of the people in which the organisation operates?
bulletAnd is this changing?
bulletWhat is the prime task of the organisation - to carry out strict technical procedures or to be creative?
bulletIs the organisation competing with similar organisations in a changing market?



What is the predominant style in your organisation?


Is this the best style given the circumstances?


Six Leadership and Management styles

Based on Morgan G (1986) Images of Organisations: Sage

Schools, like governments, use some system of "rule" as a way of creating and keeping order among their staff. Political theory can thus make a valuable contribution to noticing how schools function. The most common kinds of political rule are as follows:


absolute government where power is held by an individual or small group and supported by control of critical resources, property or ownership rights, tradition, charisma, and other claims to personal privilege


rule exercised through use of the written word, which provides the basis for a rational-legal type of authority, or "rule-of-law"


rule exercised through use of knowledge, expert power, and the ability to solve relevant problems


the form of rule where opposing parties combine in the joint management of mutual interests, as in coalition government or corporatism, each party drawing on a specific power base

Representative Democracy

rule exercised through the election of officers mandated to act on behalf of the electorate, and who hold office for a specific time period or so long as they command the support of the electorate, as in parliamentary government and forms of worker control and shareholder control in industry

Direct Democracy

the system where everyone has an equal right to rule and is involved in all decision making, as in many communal organisations such as cooperatives and kibbutzim. This political principle encourages self-organisation as a key mode of organising

Few organisations use only one method of "rule".
The key task in trying to figure out how an organisation runs is to determine which of the methods are, and could/should be, used where, when, why and how.

Self Test Exercise

Compare and contrast the typologies of four, six and seven
Do they describe the world as you have known it?
If not, why not?